But physical education became a formal requirement following the civil war when many states opted to pass laws that required schools to incorporate a substantial physical education component into their curriculums. But it was not till 1970 that an amendment was made to the Federal Education Act that allowed women from high school and college to compete in athletic competitions. Sex-based discrimination was completely outlawed from government funded programs at this point.
Physical Education in college
College athletics received a major stimulus when a National Collegiate Athletic Association was created in the early twentieth centuries. There was a rise in popularity of sports within colleges and universities and funding greatly increased. Colleges took great pride in their athletic programs and sports scholarships became a norm. There was also a surge in people who enrolled in sports education programs to meet the growing demand for professionals in the field.
Decline in Physical Education
But this is not meant to imply that the history of physical education has been all rosy. Late in the twentieth century there was certainly a decline in the commitment to physical education. The growing offering of extra subjects and electives in schools means that the shift was focusing away from physical education and towards academics. The country also faced a recession around 1970 and 1980 and the dearth of government funding means that physical education programs were often the first to be cut from schools and universities.
The modern age
But recent awareness of the need for balanced curriculums particularly given the national concern over the state of obesity and children's attention towards non-physical activities like video games has brought physical education back in the spotlight. The government has re-signaled its commitment to physical education by making it mandatory in public schools in early classes. But it remains an elective at the high school level. One of the most interesting developments in the history of physical education has been how the definition of physical education has evolved. While it only encompassed traditional sports in the beginning, it now includes several less physical activities such as yoga and meditation which are considered critical to helping students develop a sense of control in such a stressful age.
Following a brief pregame ceremony on August 12, Rodriguez donned the Yankee pinstripes for one final time as a player, contributing an RBI double in the first inning to help his team win. While he never reached the record-shattering heights that once seemed attainable, the slugger still finished with numbers that rank among the best ever in several categories, including home runs (696), RBIs (2,086), hits (3,115) and runs (2,021). Along with his three MVP awards, he won two Gold Gloves for his fielding prowess and was selected for 14 All-Star Games.
Remember, nothing is alleged to--or can have--happened to all of MLB over some one or two seasons: the claim is that PEDs were being used at a slowly but steadily increasing rate (and thus "distorting records") from very roughly 1980 through the present. Were that so, or anything like it, we would expect to see a clear long-term uptrend during this period. But we don't: we see a nearly flat line that, if anything, slopes slightly down. The "boost" just isn't there. But that doesn't seem to stop anyone from talking about it.