Anabolic steroid and peptide hormones or growth factors are utilized to increase the performance of athletes of professional or amateur sports. Despite their well-documented adverse effects, the use of some of these agents has significantly grown and has been extended also to non-athletes with the aim to improve appearance or to counteract ageing. Pre-clinical studies and epidemiological observations in patients with an excess of hormone production or in patients chronically treated with hormones/growth factors for various pathologies have warned about the potential risk of cancer development and progression which may be also associated to the use of certain doping agents. Anabolic steroids have been described to provoke liver tumours; growth hormone or high levels of its mediator insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have been associated with colon, breast, and prostate cancers. Actually, IGF-1 promotes cell cycle progression and inhibits apoptosis either by triggering other growth factors or by interacting with pathways which have an established role in carcinogenesis and cancer promotion. More recently, the finding that erythropoietin (Epo) may promote angiogenesis and inhibit apoptosis or modulate chemo- or radiosensitivity in cancer cells expressing the Epo receptor, raised the concern that the use of recombinant Epo to increase tissue oxygenation might favour tumour survival and aggressiveness. Cancer risk associated to doping might be higher than that of patients using hormones/growth factors as replacement therapy, since enormous doses are taken by the athletes often for a long period of time. Moreover, these substances are often used in combination with other licit or illicit drugs and this renders almost unpredictable all the possible adverse effects including cancer. Anyway, athletes should be made aware that long-term treatment with doping agents might increase the risk of developing cancer.
Trate de encontrar un reumatólogo pediátrico con experiencia con lupus y con quién usted y su hijo pueden compartir inquietudes y preocupaciones. Cerciórese de que su hijo cumpla con sus citas médicas, tome su medicina y tenga exámenes y análisis de sangre regulares para detectar problemas. Con tratamiento temprano y agresivo la mayor parte de los niños viven bien y tienen vidas de duración normal. Pero es importante tener un doctor de lupus con experiencia. En lugares donde saben cómo tratar el lupus, más de 9 de 10 niños viven por lo menos 10 años y en la mayoría de los casos, por muchos, muchos años.
The primary focus on serotonin deficiency as the main cause of depression has created treatment failure in many depressed and addicted patients. Other happy (excitatory) neurotransmitters are often ignored and some patients become more depressed when treated with medication. The classic depressive disorder patient who presents to Florida Detox ® is Susan, a 42-year-old professional female who seeks medical attention for depression from her local physician. Dr. Jones immediately assumes that she would benefit from a serotonin enhancer such as Paxil, Prozac, or Lexapro. If indeed this patient suffers from low serotonin levels, her depression should respond within 2-4 weeks of treatment with the serotonin enhancer. Typically, prescribed a medication like Paxil (20 mg per day), she returns one month later insisting her depression is worse. Dr. Jones raises the Paxil to 40 mg per day. Frequently these patients are prescribed extremely high doses (60 mg to 80 mg per day) in the physician’s effort to conquer the problem. Unfortunately Dr. Jones disregards the continuous report from the patient that they are not feeling any better and may actually feel more depressed. What is the problem? If serotonin is unilaterally elevated above normal levels with the mediation, the brain will down regulate production of dopamine. This makes the patient with dopamine deficiency even more dopamine deficient. These patients will typically begin to self medicate with dopaminergic drugs like Percocet, Vicodin, or OxyContin to counteract the decreased production. All of these drugs produce increased dopamine activity in the brain’s pleasure center (nucleus accumbens). When these patients are accurately diagnosed with their genetic dopamine/glutamate deficiency and treated with appropriate dopamine/glutamate enhancing medication, they quickly experience cessation of their depression and lose the craving (psychological and biochemical) for drugs and alcohol. Treatment results in better relapse statistics with the application of this scientific approach to addiction and depression. Unilateral elevation of serotonin without dopamine level protection will result in markedly elevated prolactin levels. Prolactin will increase appetite and decrease sex drive. When dopamine levels are enhanced to normal levels, sex drive will return as will better appetite control.