Do not consider WebMD User-generated content as medical advice. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified healthcare provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your care plan or treatment. WebMD understands that reading individual, real-life experiences can be a helpful resource but it is never a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment from a qualified health care provider. If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor or dial 911 immediately.
The 9 quaternary ammonium chitosans containing monosaccharides or disaccharides moieties were successfully synthesized by reductive N-alkylation then quaternized by N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) trimethylammonium chloride (Quat-188). The chemical structures of quaternary ammonium chitosan derivatives were characterized by ATR-FTIR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The degree of N-substitution (DS) and the degree of quaternization (DQ) were determined by (1)H NMR spectroscopic method. It was found that the DS was in the range of 12-40% while the DQ was in the range of 90-97%. The results indicated that the O-alkylation was occured in this condition. Moreover, all quaternary ammonium chitosan derivatives were highly water-soluble at acidic, basic, and neutral pH. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) antibacterial studies of these materials were carried out on Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) bacteria compared to quaternary ammonium N-octyl and N-benzyl chitosan derivatives. The quaternary ammonium mono and disaccharide chitosan derivatives showed very high MIC values which were in the range of 32 to >256 microg/mL against both bacteria. Also it was found that the antibacterial activity decreased with increasing the DS. This was due to the increased hydrophilicity of mono and disaccharide moieties. On the other hand, the low MIC values (8-32 microg/mL) were obviously observed when the DS of quaternary ammonium N-octyl and N-benzyl chitosan derivatives was lower than 18%. The results showed that the presence of hydrophobic moiety such as the N-benzyl group enhanced the antibacterial activity compared to the hydrophilic moiety against both bacteria.
In Western Europe all surfactant components of domestic detergents must be biodegradable. This requirement resulted from the fact that the original alkylbenzene sulfonate anionics were based on branched alkenes and these proved resistant to degradation by bacteria at sewage treatment works causing many rivers to suffer from foam. There was also a fear that surfactants could be "recycled" into drinking water. Similar concerns were expressed about nonylphenol ethoxylates and so in the 1980s the industry moved to linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and alcohol ethoxylates as the major ingredients of their formulations. Effective sewage treatment ensures that detergent components which are part of household effluent water are not discharged untreated into rivers and water courses.